Contours from a 2d density estimate.


geom_density_2d(mapping = NULL, data = NULL, stat = "density2d", position = "identity", ..., lineend = "butt", linejoin = "round", linemitre = 1, na.rm = FALSE, show.legend = NA, inherit.aes = TRUE)
stat_density_2d(mapping = NULL, data = NULL, geom = "density_2d", position = "identity", ..., contour = TRUE, n = 100, h = NULL, na.rm = FALSE, show.legend = NA, inherit.aes = TRUE)


Set of aesthetic mappings created by aes or aes_. If specified and inherit.aes = TRUE (the default), it is combined with the default mapping at the top level of the plot. You must supply mapping if there is no plot mapping.
The data to be displayed in this layer. There are three options: If NULL, the default, the data is inherited from the plot data as specified in the call to ggplot. A data.frame, or other object, will override the plot data. All objects will be fortified to produce a data frame. See fortify for which variables will be created. A function will be called with a single argument, the plot data. The return value must be a data.frame., and will be used as the layer data.
Position adjustment, either as a string, or the result of a call to a position adjustment function.
other arguments passed on to layer. These are often aesthetics, used to set an aesthetic to a fixed value, like color = "red" or size = 3. They may also be parameters to the paired geom/stat.
Line end style (round, butt, square)
Line join style (round, mitre, bevel)
Line mitre limit (number greater than 1)
If FALSE (the default), removes missing values with a warning. If TRUE silently removes missing values.
logical. Should this layer be included in the legends? NA, the default, includes if any aesthetics are mapped. FALSE never includes, and TRUE always includes.
If FALSE, overrides the default aesthetics, rather than combining with them. This is most useful for helper functions that define both data and aesthetics and shouldn't inherit behaviour from the default plot specification, e.g. borders.
geom, stat
Use to override the default connection between geom_density_2d and stat_density_2d.
If TRUE, contour the results of the 2d density estimation
number of grid points in each direction
Bandwidth (vector of length two). If NULL, estimated using bandwidth.nrd.


Perform a 2D kernel density estimation using kde2d and display the results with contours. This can be useful for dealing with overplotting.


geom_density_2d understands the following aesthetics (required aesthetics are in bold):

  • x
  • y
  • alpha
  • colour
  • linetype
  • size

Computed variables

Same as stat_contour


m <- ggplot(faithful, aes(x = eruptions, y = waiting)) + geom_point() + xlim(0.5, 6) + ylim(40, 110) m + geom_density_2d()

m + stat_density_2d(aes(fill = ..level..), geom = "polygon")

set.seed(4393) dsmall <- diamonds[sample(nrow(diamonds), 1000), ] d <- ggplot(dsmall, aes(x, y)) # If you map an aesthetic to a categorical variable, you will get a # set of contours for each value of that variable d + geom_density_2d(aes(colour = cut))

# If we turn contouring off, we can use use geoms like tiles: d + stat_density_2d(geom = "raster", aes(fill = ..density..), contour = FALSE)

# Or points: d + stat_density_2d(geom = "point", aes(size = ..density..), n = 20, contour = FALSE)

See also

geom_contour for contour drawing geom, stat_sum for another way of dealing with overplotting